Annual report pursuant to Section 13 and 15(d)

Summary of Significant Accounting Policies (Policies)

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Summary of Significant Accounting Policies (Policies)
12 Months Ended
Dec. 31, 2019
Accounting Policies [Abstract]  
Nature of Business

Nature of Business –Sigma Labs, Inc., formerly named Framewaves, Inc., a Nevada corporation, was founded by a group of scientists, engineers and businessmen to develop and commercialize novel and unique manufacturing and materials technologies. Sigma believes that some of these technologies will fundamentally redefine conventional quality assurance and process control practices by embedding them into the manufacturing processes in real time, enabling process intervention and ultimately leading to closed loop process control. The Company anticipates that its core technologies will allow its clientele to combine advanced manufacturing quality assurance and process control protocols with novel materials to achieve breakthrough product potential in many industries including aerospace, defense, oil and gas, bio-medical, and power generation. The terms the “Company,” “Sigma,” “we,” “us” and “our” refer to Sigma Labs, Inc.

Reverse Stock Split

Reverse Stock Split - Effective February 27, 2020, our Articles of Incorporation were amended to provide for a reverse stock split of the outstanding shares of our common stock on a 1-for-10 basis (the “Reverse Stock Split”), and a corresponding decrease in the number of shares of our common stock that we are authorized to issue (the “Share Decrease”). The effects of the stock split have been retroactively reflected to all periods presented.

Basis of Presentation

Basis of Presentation – The accompanying financial statements have been prepared by the Company in accordance with Generally Accepted Accounting Principles (“GAAP”) in the United States of America. In the opinion of management, all adjustments (which include only normal recurring adjustments) necessary to present fairly the financial position, results of operations and cash flows at December 31, 2019 and 2018 and for the periods then ended have been made.

Continuing Operations

Continuing Operations – The Company has sustained losses and had negative cash flows from operating activities since its inception. Commencing in 2017, the company committed itself to a focused initiative to transition its product and its company culture from research and development into an enterprise with a commercial industrial product and a business-oriented operation culture.

 

In 2019, the Company relied on both public and private offerings to finance the commencement of commercialization by entering test and evaluation programs with large potential customers, both end-users and OEMs. On March 15, 2019, the Company closed a public offering of equity securities resulting in net proceeds of approximately $1,679,230, after deducting placement agent commissions and other offering expenses payable by the Company. In May 2019, the Company closed a private placement of equity securities resulting in net proceeds of approximately $515,000, after deducting placement agent commissions and other offering expenses payable by the Company. In August 2019, the Company closed a public offering of equity securities resulting in net proceeds of approximately $1,971,000, after deducting placement agent commissions and other offering expenses payable by the Company. In September 2019, Aegis Capital Corp. partially exercised its over-allotment option granted by the Company in the foregoing August 2019 public offering resulting in net proceeds of $148,800 after deducting placement agent commissions.

 

The transition from 2018 and 2019 led into 2020 such that the continuing operations of the Company are no longer dependent upon financing the cost of product development in the absence of revenues, but rather now upon our abilities to finance our efforts to successfully ramp up commercialization, thus earning the product validation of both customer licensing and purchases and creating a dynamic in which public and private offerings facilitate the growth of revenues, thus attracting investor support for continuing investment even as the revenues begin the reduction of the company’s dependence on capital raises over time. In January 2020, the Company closed two private placements of equity securities resulting in net proceeds of approximately $1,711,124 after deducting placement agent commissions and other offering expenses payable by the Company.

 

As a result, the Company currently has sufficient cash and working capital to fund operations through the end of the first quarter of 2020 and is anticipating that contracts may be closed during fiscal 2020 generating additional cash flow in the near-term. In addition, the Company has access to public and private markets from which to derive additional financing to sustain operations beyond that term, if required; however the Company is unable to predict the extent to which the novel coronavirus may affect the financial markets and the Company’s access to such markets. There is no assurance that we will be successful in obtaining additional funding. If we fail to obtain sufficient funding when needed, we may be forced to delay, scale back or eliminate all or a portion of our commercialization efforts and operations.

Loss Per Share

Loss Per Share – The computation of loss per share is based on the weighted average number of shares outstanding during the period in accordance with ASC Topic No. 260, “Earnings Per Share.” Shares underlying the Company’s outstanding warrants, options or note conversion features were excluded due to the anti-dilutive effect they would have on the computation. At December 31, 2019 and 2018, the Company had the following common shares underlying these instruments:

 

    Year Ended December 31,  
    2019     2018  
Warrants     363,727       305,060  
Stock Options     180,903       82,627  
Convertible Note Payable     2,500       2,500  
                 
Total Underlying Common Shares     547,130       390,187  

Property and Equipment

Property and Equipment – Property and equipment are stated at cost. Expenditures for major renewals and betterments that extend the useful lives of property and equipment are capitalized upon being placed in service. Expenditures for maintenance and repairs are charged to expense as incurred. Depreciation is computed using the straight-line method over the estimated useful lives of the assets. The estimated life has been determined to be five years unless a unique circumstance exists, which is then fully documented as an exception to the policy.

 

In accordance with its policy, the Company reviews the estimated useful lives of its fixed assets on an ongoing basis.

Income Taxes

Income Taxes – The Company accounts for income taxes in accordance with ASC Topic No. 740, “Accounting for Income Taxes.”

 

The Company has no tax positions at December 31, 2019 and 2018 for which the ultimate deductibility is highly uncertain but for which there is uncertainty about the timing of such deductibility.

 

The Company recognizes interest accrued related to unrecognized tax benefits in interest expense and penalties in operating expenses. During the years ended December 31, 2019 and 2018, the Company recognized no interest and penalties. All tax years starting with 2016 are open for examination.

Accounts Receivable and Allowance for Doubtful Accounts

Accounts Receivable and Allowance for Doubtful Accounts - Trade accounts receivable are carried at original invoice amount less an estimate made for doubtful accounts. We determine the allowance for doubtful accounts by identifying potential troubled accounts and by using historical experience and future expectations applied to an aging of accounts. Trade accounts receivable are written off when deemed uncollectible. Recoveries of trade accounts receivable previously written off are recorded as income when received. There was no allowance for doubtful accounts at December 31, 2019 or 2018.

Long-Lived and Intangible Assets

Long-Lived and Intangible Assets – Long-lived assets and certain identifiable definite life intangibles to be held and used by the Company are reviewed for impairment whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying amount of an asset may not be recoverable. The Company continuously evaluates the recoverability of its long-lived assets based on estimated future cash flows and the estimated liquidation value of such long-lived assets, and provides for impairment if such undiscounted cash flows are insufficient to recover the carrying amount of the long-lived assets. If impairment exists, an adjustment is made to write the asset down to its fair value, and a loss is recorded as the difference between the carrying value and fair value. Fair values are determined based on quoted market values, discounted cash flows or internal and external appraisals, as applicable. Assets to be disposed of are carried at the lower of carrying value or estimated net realizable value. $50,255 of dental patents were written off in January of 2018, and $23,909 of patents related to PrintRite3D® Contour were written off in December of 2019.

Cash Equivalents

Cash Equivalents - The Company considers all highly liquid investments with an original maturity of three months or less at date of purchase to be cash equivalents.

Concentration of Credit Risk

Concentration of Credit Risk - The Company maintains its cash in bank deposit accounts, which, at times, may exceed federally insured limits. The Company has not experienced any losses in such accounts and believes it is not exposed to any significant credit risk on cash and cash equivalents.

Stock Based Compensation

Stock Based Compensation – The Company recognizes compensation costs to employees under ASC Topic No. 718, “Compensation – Stock Compensation.” Under ASC Topic No. 718, companies are required to measure the compensation costs of share-based compensation arrangements based on the grant-date fair value and recognize the costs in the financial statements over the period during which employees are required to provide services. Share based compensation arrangements may include stock options, grants of shares of common stock with and without restrictions, performance-based awards, share appreciation rights and employee share purchase plans. As such, compensation cost is measured on the date of grant at its fair value. Such compensation amounts, if any, are amortized over the respective vesting periods of the option or stock grants.

 

Equity instruments issued to non-employees are recorded on the basis of the fair value of the instruments, as required by ASC Topic No. 505, “Equity Based Payments to Non-Employees.” In general, the measurement date is either (a) when a performance commitment, as defined, is reached or (b) the earlier of the date that (i) the non-employee performance requirement is complete or (ii) the instruments are vested. The measured value related to the instruments is recognized over a period based on the facts and circumstances of each particular grant as defined in the FASB Accounting Standards Codification.

Amortization

Amortization - Utility patents are amortized over a 17-year period. Patents which are pending are not amortized.

Accounting Estimates

Accounting Estimates - The preparation of financial statements in conformity with generally accepted accounting principles in the United States requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect certain reported amounts of assets and liabilities, the disclosures of contingent assets and liabilities at the date of the financial statements, and the reported amounts of revenues and expenses during the reporting period. Actual results could differ from those estimated by management. Significant accounting estimates that may materially change in the near future are impairment of long-lived assets, values of stock compensation awards and stock equivalents granted as offering costs, and allowance for bad debts and inventory obsolescence.

Revenue Recognition

Revenue Recognition – The Company’s revenue is derived primarily from sales of our software and related hardware suite and from providing engineering services under contracts. The Company recognizes revenue in accordance with ASC Topic No. 606. In May 2014, the Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB) issued Accounting Standards Update (ASU) No. 2014-09, Revenue from Contracts with Customers. ASU 2014-09 is a comprehensive revenue recognition standard that superseded nearly all existing revenue recognition guidance under prior U.S. GAAP and replace it with a principles-based approach for determining revenue recognition. The core principle of the standard is the recognition of revenue upon the transfer of promised goods or services to customers in an amount that reflects the consideration to which the company expects to be entitled in exchange for those goods or services.

 

In general, we determine revenue recognition by: (1) identifying the contract, or contracts, with our customer; (2) identifying the performance obligations in the contract; (3) determining the transaction price; (4) allocating the transaction price to performance obligations in the contract; and (5) recognizing revenue when, or as, we satisfy performance obligations by transferring the promised goods or services.

Deferred Stock Offering Costs

Deferred Stock Offering Costs – Costs related to stock offerings (if any) are deferred and will be offset against the proceeds of the offering in additional paid-in capital. In the event a stock offering is unsuccessful, the costs relating to the offering will be written-off directly to expense.

Inventory

Inventory – Inventories consist of raw materials used in the production of customized parts, work-in-process and finished goods components which will be sold to customers. Inventories are valued at the lower of cost or net realizable value, using the first-in, first-out (FIFO) method.

Research and Development

Research and Development – Research and development costs are expensed as they are incurred. Research and development costs for the years ended December 31, 2019 and 2018 were $647,994 and $493,410, respectively.