Quarterly report pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d)

Summary of Significant Accounting Policies

v2.4.1.9
Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
3 Months Ended
Mar. 31, 2015
Accounting Policies [Abstract]  
Significant Accounting Policies [Text Block]
NOTE 1 – Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
 
Nature of Business – On September 13, 2010 Sigma Labs, Inc., formerly named Framewaves, Inc., a Nevada corporation (the “Company”), acquired 100% of the shares of B6 Sigma, Inc. by exchanging 6.67 shares of Framewaves, Inc. restricted common stock for each issued and outstanding share of B6 Sigma, Inc. The acquisition has been accounted for as a “reverse purchase”, and accordingly the operations of Framewaves, Inc. prior to the date of acquisition have been eliminated.
 
B6 Sigma, Inc., incorporated February 5, 2010, was founded by a group of scientists, engineers and businessmen to develop and commercialize novel and unique manufacturing and materials technologies. The Company believes that some of these technologies will fundamentally redefine conventional quality assurance and control practices by embedding quality assurance and process control into the manufacturing processes in real time. The Company anticipates that its core technologies will allow its clientele to combine advanced manufacturing quality assurance and control protocols with novel materials to achieve breakthrough product potential in many industries including aerospace, defense, oil and gas, bio-medical and power generation.
 
As of December 31, 2011, Sigma Labs, Inc. acquired 100% of the shares of Sumner & Lawrence Limited (“Sumner”), a New Mexico Corporation, and La Mancha Company, a New Mexico Corporation, in exchange for 35,000,000 shares of Sigma Labs, Inc. common stock. The operations of Sumner and La Mancha Company prior to the date of acquisition have been eliminated. La Mancha Company and Sumner have since ceased all operations and were dissolved in 2013 and 2014, respectively.
 
Basis of Presentation – The accompanying consolidated financial statements have been prepared by the Company in accordance with Article 8 of U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission Regulation S-X. In the opinion of management, all adjustments (which include only normal recurring adjustments) necessary to present fairly the financial position, results of operations and cash flows at March 31, 2015 and 2014 and for the periods then ended have been made. Certain information and footnote disclosures normally included in financial statements prepared in accordance with U.S. generally accepted accounting principles have been condensed or omitted. Management suggests these condensed consolidated financial statements be read in conjunction with the December 31, 2014 audited consolidated financial statements and notes thereto included in the Company’s Form 10-K. The results of operations for the periods ended March 31, 2015 and 2014 are not necessarily indicative of the operating results for the full year.
 
Reclassification – Certain amounts in prior-period financial statements have been reclassified for comparative purposes to conform to presentation in the current-period financial statements.
 
Principles of Consolidation – The consolidated financial statements for March 31, 2015 include the accounts of Sigma Labs, Inc. and B6 Sigma, Inc. All significant intercompany balances and transactions have been eliminated.
 
Property and Equipment – Property and equipment are stated at cost. Expenditures for major renewals and betterments that extend the useful lives of property and equipment are capitalized upon being placed in service. Expenditures for maintenance and repairs are charged to expense as incurred. Depreciation is computed using the straight-line method over the estimated useful lives of the assets. The estimated life has been determined to be three years unless a unique circumstance exists, which is then fully documented as an exception to the policy.
 
Fair Value of Financial Instruments – The Company estimates that the fair value of all financial instruments does not differ materially from the aggregate carrying values of its financial instruments recorded in the accompanying consolidated balance sheets because of the short-term maturity of these financial instruments.
 
Income Taxes – The Company accounts for income taxes in accordance with ASC Topic No. 740, “Accounting for Income Taxes.”
 
The Company adopted the provisions of ASC Topic No. 740, “Accounting for Income Taxes,” at the date of inception on February 5, 2010. As a result of the implementation of ASC Topic No. 740, the Company recognized no increase in the liability for unrecognized tax benefits.
 
The Company has no tax positions at March 31, 2015 and December 31, 2014 for which the ultimate deductibility is highly certain but for which there is uncertainty about the timing of such deductibility.
 
The Company recognizes interest accrued related to unrecognized tax benefits in interest expense and penalties in operating expenses. During the three months ended March 31, 2015, the Company recognized no interest and penalties. The Company had no accruals for interest and penalties at March 31, 2015 and 2014, or December 31, 2014. All tax years starting with 2010 are open for examination.
 
Loss Per Share – The computation of loss per share is based on the weighted average number of shares outstanding during the period in accordance with ASC Topic No. 260, “Earnings Per Share.”
 
Accounts Receivable and Allowance for Doubtful Accounts - Trade accounts receivable are carried at original invoice amount less an estimate made for doubtful accounts. We determine the allowance for doubtful accounts by identifying potential troubled accounts and by using historical experience and future expectations applied to an aging of accounts. Trade accounts receivable are written off when deemed uncollectible. Recoveries of trade accounts receivable previously written off are recorded as income when received. The allowance for doubtful accounts at March 31, 2015 and December 31, 2014 was $4,884 and $4,884 respectively.
 
Long-Lived and Intangible Assets – Long-lived assets and certain identifiable definite life intangibles to be held and used by the Company are reviewed for impairment whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying amount of an asset may not be recoverable. The Company continuously evaluates the recoverability of its long-lived assets based on estimated future cash flows and the estimated liquidation value of such long-lived assets, and provides for impairment if such undiscounted cash flows are insufficient to recover the carrying amount of the long-lived assets. If impairment exists, an adjustment is made to write the asset down to its fair value, and a loss is recorded as the difference between the carrying value and fair value. Fair values are determined based on quoted market values, discounted cash flows or internal and external appraisals, as applicable. Assets to be disposed of are carried at the lower of carrying value or estimated net realizable value. No impairment was recorded in the three months ended March 31, 2015 or the year ended December 31, 2014.
 
Recently Enacted Accounting Standards – The FASB established the Accounting Standards Codification (“Codification” or “ASC”) as the source of authoritative accounting principles recognized by the FASB to be applied by nongovernmental entities in the preparation of financial statements in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles in the United States (“GAAP”). Rules and interpretive releases of the Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”) issued under authority of federal securities laws are also sources of GAAP for SEC registrants.
 
Recent Accounting Standards Updates (“ASU”) through ASU No. 2014-16 contain technical corrections to existing guidance or affects guidance to specialized industries. These updates have no current applicability to the Company or their effect on the financial statements would not have been significant.
 
Cash Equivalents - The Company considers all highly liquid investments with an original maturity of three months or less at date of purchase to be cash equivalents.
 
Concentration of Credit Risk - The Company maintains its cash in bank deposit accounts, which, at times, may exceed federally insured limits. The Company has not experienced any losses in such accounts and believes it is not exposed to any significant credit risk on cash and cash equivalents.
 
Organization Expenditures – Organizational expenditures are expensed as incurred for SEC filings, but capitalized and amortized for income tax purposes.
 
Stock Based Compensation – The Company recognizes compensation costs to employees under ASC Topic No. 718, “Compensation – Stock Compensation.” Under ASC Topic No. 718, companies are required to measure the compensation costs of share-based compensation arrangements based on the grant-date fair value and recognize the costs in the financial statements over the period during which employees are required to provide services. Share based compensation arrangements may include stock options, grants of shares of common stock with and without restrictions, performance based awards, share appreciation rights and employee share purchase plans. As such, compensation cost is measured on the date of grant at its fair value. Such compensation amounts, if any, are amortized over the respective vesting periods of the option or stock grants. Unvested option or stock grants for compensation are included in the Statement of Stockholders’ Equity as a contra-equity account as “Deferred Compensation.”
 
Equity instruments issued to non-employees are recorded on the basis of the fair value of the instruments, as required by ASC Topic No. 505, “Equity Based Payments to Non-Employees.” In general, the measurement date is either (a) when a performance commitment, as defined, is reached or (b) the earlier of the date that (i) the non-employee performance requirement is complete or (ii) the instruments are vested. The measured value related to the instruments is recognized over a period based on the facts and circumstances of each particular grant as defined in the FASB Accounting Standards Codification.
 
Amortization - Utility patents are amortized over a 17 year period. Patents which are pending are not amortized. The customer contacts intangible asset was being amortized over a 3 year period.
 
Accounting Estimates - The preparation of financial statements in conformity with generally accepted accounting principles in the United States requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect certain reported amounts of assets and liabilities, the disclosures of contingent assets and liabilities at the date of the financial statements, and the reported amounts of revenues and expenses during the reporting period. Actual results could differ from those estimated by management. Significant accounting estimates that may materially change in the near future are impairment of long-lived assets, values of stock compensation awards and stock equivalents granted as offering costs, and allowance for bad debts and inventory obsolescence.
 
Revenue Recognition – The Company’s revenue is derived primarily from providing services under contracts. The Company recognizes revenue in accordance with ASC Topic No. 605 based on the following criteria: Persuasive evidence of an arrangement exists, services have been rendered, the price is fixed or determinable, and collectability is reasonably assured. In general, the Company recognizes service revenue as significant services under the relevant arrangement have been performed.
 
Deferred Stock Offering Costs – Costs related to proposed stock offerings (if any) are deferred and will be offset against the proceeds of the offering in additional paid-in capital. In the event a stock offering is unsuccessful, the costs relating to the offering will be written-off directly to expense.
 
Inventory – Inventories consist of raw materials used in the production of customized parts totaling $10,796 and work in process components totaling $51,648 which will be sold to customers. Inventories are valued at the lower of cost or market.
 
Research and Development – Research and development costs are expensed as they are incurred. Research and development costs for the three months ended March 31, 2015 and 2014 were $70,147 and $0, respectively.